Science Weighs In on High Heels

17well_physed-tmagArticleMany commentators have pointed out that the new movie “Jurassic World” is scientifically suspect, if not fantastical. But they have overlooked one of the more prominent ways in which the blockbuster diverges from established research. The movie’s heroine runs from rampaging beasts in high heels, without turning a hair or an ankle. But research on the biomechanics of wearing heels, including a new study of the effects on ankle strength and balance, says of her equipoise: “Ha.”

Obviously, what we wear on our feet affects how our bodies move. People who run barefoot, for instance, are more likely to land near the front of the foot with each stride than people wearing typical running shoes, who more commonly land on their heels.

But few other shoes affect the shape and functioning of the foot as dramatically as high heels do. According to a recent review of the available research about the footwear, walking in heels can “alter the natural position of the foot-ankle complex, and thereby produce a chain reaction of effects that travel up the lower limb at least as far as the spine.”

But while it’s clear that the feet and ankles of women who wear heels over a long period of time are different from those of women who usually wear flats, the progression of theses changes has not been well understood.

So for a new study published this month in The International Journal of Clinical Practice, researchers at Hanseo University in South Korea turned to a handy recruit group: young women at the university studying to become airline attendants who were required to wear high heels to class, since they would have to wear them if hired by a Korean airline. With each passing year, from incoming freshmen to seniors, the women would have one additional year of heel wearing behind them, making it easy to track physiological changes.

So the researchers invited 10 young women from each class to the lab and tested their balance with a wobbly board and the strength of their ankle muscles using computerized exercise machines.

The results were interesting. Compared with the freshmen, who were generally new to wearing heels, the sophomores and juniors displayed greater strength in some of the muscles around their ankles, particularly those on the inside and outside of the joint.

This difference between new and experienced heel wearers suggests that “wearing high heeled shoes may at first lead to adaptation and increased strength,” as the ankle responds to the stresses placed upon it by the unfamiliar shoes, says Jee Yong-Seok, a professor of exercise physiology at Hanseo University, who led the study.

But the senior women, who had been wearing heels the longest, showed weakening of those same muscles, compared even with the freshmen, as well as much weaker muscles along the front and back of the ankle and dramatically worse balance.

In fact, all of the upperclasswomen had worse balance than the freshmen, even as some of their muscles were strengthening.

What seems to have been happening, Dr. Yong-Seok says, is that the ratio of strength between the muscles on the sides of the ankles and those at the front and back became increasingly unbalanced over years of wearing heels, contributing to ankle instability and balance problems and eventually to a decline in the strength even of those muscles that had been stronger for awhile.

This finding is somewhat worrisome, says Neil Cronin, a biology professor at the University of Jyvaskyla in Finland who has studied heel wearing and wrote the recent review of related science.

Strength imbalances in the muscles around a joint, he says, particularly those around the ankle, “are known to increase injury risk in other muscle groups,” such as those in the hamstrings or upper leg.

Neither he nor Dr. Yong-Seok suggests that women eschew heels, however.

Dr. Yong-Seok does recommend that people who often wear heels strengthen their ankles whenever possible with simple heel lifts, for which you stand barefoot and then rise onto your toes repeatedly; and heel drops, during which you stand on the edge of a stair and slowly lower your heel over the edge.

Dr. Cronin also suggests slipping off heels while sitting at your desk, since wearing the shoes, even when not moving “can alter the resting length of the muscles and tendons around the ankle,” which could destabilize the joint and increase the risk of injury.

He also strongly advises against running in heels. The impact forces created “would be concentrated over a small region of the foot in high heels, creating regions of very high pressure,” he said, meaning foot pain. Plus balance and biomechanics are compromised, making running in heels “a very inefficient way to move.”

The lesson for fans of “Jurassic World” is: Don’t do what she did. “When attempting to run from a fast-moving, deadly animal,” Dr. Cronin said, “high heels are perhaps the worst choice of footwear possible. Running shoes would get my vote.”

Why Americans dress so casually

As you look at that hoodie you got as a Christmas or Hanukkah present, you may wonder why you didn’t get something a little more fancy as a gift. Don’t take it personally. It turns out that Americans are a decidedly casual society when it comes to fashion. In this piece, originally published in September, we examined how that came to be. In this conversation, we explore what happened in America that made us dress so casually. 

Look around you, and you’ll likely notice a sea of different outfits. You might see similar articles of clothing — even the same ones — worn by different people, but rarely do you find two pairings of tops, bottoms, shoes, and accessories that are exactly alike.

That wasn’t always the case, said Deirdre Clemente, a historian of 20th century American culture at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, whose research focuses on fashion and clothing. Americans were far more formal, and formulaic dressers, not all that long ago. Men wore suits, almost without fail — not just to work, but also at school. And women, for the most part, wore long dresses.

Clemente has written extensively about the evolution of American dress in the 1900s, a period that, she said, was marked, maybe more than anything else, by a single but powerful trend: As everyday fashion broke from tradition, it shed much of its socioeconomic implications — people no longer dress to feign wealth like they once did — and took on a new meaning.

The shift has, above all, led toward casualness in the way we dress. It can be seen on college campuses, in classrooms, where students attend in sweatpants, and in the workplace, where Silicon Valley busy bodies are outfitted with hoodies and T-shirts. That change, the change in how we dress here in America, has been brewing since the 1920s, and owes itself to the rise of specific articles of clothing. What’s more, it underscores important shifts in the way we use and understand the shirts and pants we wear.

I spoke with Clemente to learn more about the origins of casual dress, and the staying power of the trend. The interview has been edited for length and clarity.

Let’s start by talking a bit about what you study. You’re a historian, and you focus on American culture as it pertains to fashion. Is that right?

I’m a cultural historian. I’m a 20th century expert, so don’t ask me anything about the Civil War. And my focus is clothing in fashion. So I’m a little bit of a business historian, a little bit of a historian of marketing, and a little bit of a historian of gender. When you kind of mix all of those things together, all those subsections of history, you get what I study.

So that scene from “The Devil Wears Prada,” when Meryl Streep criticizes Anne Hathaway for believing she isn’t affected by fashion, it must resonate with you.

Well you know, it’s just so true. People say, “Oh well, you know, I don’t care about fashion.” They go to the Gap, they go to Old Navy, and they all dress alike, they wear these uniforms. The thing that I really harp on is that, that in and of itself is a choice, it’s a personal choice, because there are many people who don’t do that. In buying those uniforms, you’re saying something about yourself, and about how you feel about clothing and culture. There is no such thing as an unaffected fashion choice. Anti-fashion is fashion, because it’s a reaction to the current visual culture, a negation of it.

How would you characterize the way Americans dress today? What’s the contemporary visual culture like now?

Well, I would certainly say that there are, above all, so many more choices than there have ever been before. There’s also a tendency like never before to alternate styles. People will one day dress very conservatively and then the next day wear something much more dramatic, much less formal.

There’s a clear trend toward individualization, as opposed to homogenization. There are so many different kinds of social and cultural personas that we can put on, and our clothes have become extremely emblematic of that. And the thing is, even if you don’t have a lot of money, you can now dress freely, individually.

You have written about how American dress, perhaps more than anything else, is characterized by how casual it is. What do you mean by that?

There’s this fashion theorist who wrote in the 1930s about how in capitalist societies, clothing serves as this way to jump in and out of socioeconomic class. Now, he was writing at a time when people were still really trying to jump up, and could feign wealth. You could buy a nice-looking suit and make it seem like you were a lot more wealthy than you actually were then. But in the second half of the 20th century, what we’ve seen is people doing just the opposite.

Americans have come to dress casually in a way that is very interesting as a historian. When you look back at old pictures of students, it’s jarring. We used to dress so formally, just to go to class.

Are there points, chronologically, that stand out? Times that were particularly important for the migration toward less formal wear?

I think there are two key points in the 1920s. The 1920s were really important for this shift.

In the 1920s, when women really broke away from dresses and matchy matchy suits, and instead began to use sweater vests and other outfits, versatility entered the minds of buyers. At that point, people began to mix and match, wear more sweaters, more gored (which is a kind of skirt).

By the late 1920s, very few college men wore suits to class. The rise of the sports coat is an incredibly underlauded change in American culture. Because once boys started wearing sports coats instead of suits, men’s outfits became more versatile, they moved away from ties, they wore all sorts of different things, like sweaters, with their jackets.

If so much of this was predicated on shifts that happened in the 1920s, was there nothing impactful that happened thereafter?

Pants on women. You cannot talk about the rise of casual dress without talking about the rise of pants of women. You first saw it in elite women’s schools, such as Wellesley and Vassar. Once women were wearing pants and even jeans on campus and to class, which happened starting in the 1930s, things really began to change. Even though it wasn’t yet happening on co-ed campuses, because of the mix of genders, and formality that persisted around that, it was still a big deal.

World World II was also revolutionary for dress. The war brought about a whole culture of dress that didn’t exist before. Women wore what they wanted, because it didn’t matter — they were on their way to the victory garden — or because they were working at factories, where practicality was more important.

So in the aftermath of World War II, more casual outfits became commonplace?

Yes, although there was a slight backslide in the late 1940s, where we saw a bit of reluctance around it. In 1948, Christian Dior put out a new look in the United States, which featured long skirts that were tight-waisted. That was a Parisian couture influence, though, and it didn’t stick. Women either weren’t really buying it, or wearing it. It had about a two-year lifespan, and then the college girls migrated toward the freedom of articles like pants and less cumbersome dresses. They had experienced these, and they weren’t going to go back to more uncomfortable clothing.

Then in the 1950s, you really start to see stay-at-home moms wearing casual wear in the house — shirts, pants, jeans, even T-shirts. And it really took off from there.

The only thing I will say is that there’s still a bit of a gender hangover, where women are singled out for wearing clothing normally associated with men.

There’s something in women buying “men’s clothing” that still irks a lot of people. I have been shocked at the e-mails I have gotten. People like to say that casual dress isn’t about freedom, that it’s about laziness. But that’s hilarious, especially to me as a historian, because it simply isn’t true.

There’s something called collective selection. And what it is, is the idea that no longer is it the rich people telling the poor people how to dress, no longer is it that the poor people want to wear what the rich wear. Nowadays it’s a group decision. Because class is so wishy washy today, since everyone thinks that they’re middle class, the collective selection is what is acceptable in different scenarios — the office, the church, the classroom, etc. It’s decided by the group.

What about the development of American fashion in comparison to that elsewhere? Have we gone further down the road of casual dress than other cultures?

Oh, I mean, absolutely. I think that American culture is now associated with casual dress on a global scale. On sort of the world stage, where American culture is so prominent, many countries emulate the way people in the United States dress, and that’s almost inevitably more casually than the way people dress in those places. The version of casual elsewhere, in Europe especially, it just never gets as down and dirty as the American version. Their version of casual is still a scarf and a stylish leather jacket, whereas ours is a starter jacket and jeans.

The American love of sportswear and comfortable clothes has redefined the limits, and it’s affecting the limits elsewhere too, since others emulate us.

Can I ask what might be an obvious question, at least to you. What makes something casual, and something else formal?

That’s an obvious question, and an awesome question. The answer inevitably is tied to history. I can look at something and say “Oh, the history of that article of clothing is such and such, and that history is tied to wealth.” Or, if you look at, say, the turtleneck, and understand that it comes from ski-wear, or flip flops, and realize that they were originally shower-wear, often used by servants, it changes the context in which you understand the clothing.

More broadly, and kind of simply, fit and fabric also tend to be good indicators. The fit of casual clothes tends to be looser, and the fabric tends to be lighter, because there’s less of it. There’s also less covering of the skin in casual wear. When you think of formal attire, it mostly covers the vast majority of the body.

Also, the connotations of it, which, again, are rooted in history. That’s the cool thing about clothing, which people don’t realize. When someone is like ‘those shoes are cool but I don’t know if they’re appropriate for this wedding,’ their opinion is the product of years, even decades of understanding.

Even at the office, we’ve shed some of the more formal, traditional understandings of what’s okay to wear. You mentioned Steve Jobs, but Silicon Valley as a whole is kind of redefining office wear, is it not?

Oh, I love that. It’s this evolution of casual, and even of business casual. In the 1990s, it was derivative of business, and now it’s derivative of casual. It’s amazing for me to see.

But this isn’t your typical business casual. Every time I see that phrase I look it up, and it’s like khakis and a button down still. This is more like business CASUAL, or casual business, where casual is the emphasis.

They are absolutely the spearhead of business casual. They were the first people to do away with dress codes at the office.

Why does it bend toward casual?

I think we dress more casually because we can, because in American culture perennial appearance has become an expression of individuality and not social class to the degree that dressing up is dressing up the socioeconomic ladder. I think that we dress more casually because it’s a middle ground for Americans. I mean look at the presidential candidates. Donald Trump has his own, albeit mediocre quality, shirt and tie line. It’s all about standing out and yet fitting in.

The modern market allows us to personalize that style. Casual is the sweet spot between looking like every middle class American and being an individual in the massive wash of options. This idea of the freedom to dress in a way that is meaningful to us as people, and to express various types of identity.

I know that you’re a historian, and traditionally look into the past, but I’m going to ask you to look into the future. Where is this trend toward casual dress taking us?

How about I make a prediction about a specific technology that’s been long overdue? I don’t know if it will happen, let alone sometime soon, but self-cleaning fabrics, I think that will be a thing. At the very least it should be.

I have to say, self-cleaning fabrics are about as casual as it gets.

Let’s just say I probably wouldn’t put my money in dry cleaning if I had some extra money to spare and wanted to invest in something. Those sorts of things are going to die out.

There was this very cool Italian futurist who in the 1930s made a prediction about what fashion would be like 100 years from then. His prediction was that everyone would dress in uniforms. But that’s the complete opposite of what has happened.  And I don’t think people will be dressing in uniforms anytime soon. Clothing will instead continue to be a way to project individuality and our own personal alliances to the broader culture.

fashions worn by the wealthy in the 19th century

The V&A’s Victorian dress collection represents the fashions worn by the wealthy in the 19th century, and reflects their lives and aspirations. The clothing featured here also showcases the high level of 59424-smallskill in dressmaking and design carried out by dressmakers and tailors in Victorian times. The degree of workmanship involved in making these clothes meant that they were expensive to make -they were high fashion comparable to today’s haute couture. Very few examples of men’s clothing have survived from this period – generally men’s fashions changed slowly and darker colours were often worn for business and on formal occasions. This meant that even expensive garments could be worn longer and were worn out with day-to-day wear.

The middle classes generally would not wear such high value items such as these. However, the style of these clothes would have spread further than the small social group for whom they were made, much the same as adapted catwalk fashions can be found in high street retailers today. The middle classes could afford to have high fashion copied by local dressmakers and tailors, or made their own new clothes.

The poor would rely on the huge second-hand clothes trade prevalent during the period, spending hours altering old clothes for themselves and their families to make them fit or to make them more fashionable. Clothes could be dyed and the good parts of a garment made into children’s clothes or accessories, and areas of wear could be patched. There was even a market for ragged clothes that had been through several owners – these were still worn by the destitute.

Women’s clothes 1830s-1860s

Women’s skirts swelled between 1840 and 1860. At first the skirts were supported by several petticoats, one of which was of a stiffened silk or of a silk and horsehair fabric, known as crinoline. When the frame of pliable steel hoops was invented in 1856, it was known as the cage crinoline. It would have been very heavy and cumbersome to wear a full-length coat over a crinoline skirt, so mantles, shawls or short jackets were more convenient for outdoor wear. Fibres used were all natural ones such as cotton, wool and silk. Making the very tight bodices and sleeves of women’s dresses required far more skill than the straight-seamed skirt

Dress Code Drama: What’s A Principal To Do?

walking through the crowded halls of your school. You’re on your way to 11th grade chemistry, to watch a science lab. They’re expecting you in two minutes.

It already feels like a long day and it’s not even lunchtime. You’re nearly there, 30 seconds to spare, but then — out of the corner of your eye — you see a student wearing cutoff shorts. And they’re really, really short.

What should you do?

Stopping to have a disciplinary chat is probably the last thing you want to do. But, rules are rules, right?

“We don’t get into the line of business that we are in because we enjoy enforcing rules,” says Erik Burmeister, an assistant superintendent with the Menlo Park school district near San Francisco and a former principal himself.

“The challenge of any administrator is the urgent displacing the important,” Burmeister adds. And questions about what students can and can’t wear have definitely become urgent.

One big reason: A growing number of students and parents feel that dress codes are biased toward female students. And that has led to complaints and protests around the country.

Among the recent headlines: A high school in North Dakota, where female students complained that changes to the dress code were unfair to girls. Students in Maine wore “crop tops” and other off-limits clothing to protest what they said is a sexist policy.

At Pasadena High School in Southern California, one student summed up the concerns of many: “I’m against the way they presented it to us,” sophomore Sophie Manoukian told local television station CBS2. “It’s like girls should be ashamed of their bodies. And even though they presented it like it was about equal opportunity for education, it was about how girls can be distracting and pulled out of class to change.”

How should these issues be approached? Can they be avoided altogether?

Here are some recommendations from a few administrators I spoke with:

Make Dress Codes Gender-Neutral

Increasingly, the words “gender-neutral dress code” are popping up on school board agendas and at PTA meetings.

“It’s a phrase I’m learning about,” says Michael Allison, president of the National Association of Secondary School Principals. “I think we’ll be seeing a lot of changes at schools around the country in the next few years.”

The dress code Burmeister created a few years ago, when he was a principal, was gender-neutral. It listed five simple “norms” for students, starting with the most important: “All students must be covered from mid-thigh to top of chest in non-see-through materials.”

The response was positive, he says. And it shifted the discussion from conflict to cooperation. “As a society changes, our schools need to change as well, but that conversation doesn’t need to be parents and students pitted against schools.”

Debbie Brockett, the principal of Las Vegas High School in Nevada, says she doesn’t believe any rule should be enforced unless it can be applied to the guys as well as the girls.

“One of our guys showed up to school with a really deep V-neck shirt, and I asked him to change. I wouldn’t have let a girl get away with it, so I won’t let him get away with it.”

Another reason for a gender-neutral approach, she adds: It avoids embarrassment for transgender students. “Not one person gives them a hard time.”

Ask Yourself: Why Does That Rule Exist?

“There was a rule in place, for whatever reason, that girls couldn’t wear leggings,” Brockett recalls. “We found ourselves fighting the leggings without any of us knowing why.”

She didn’t see how leggings would keep a student from learning. So, with the agreement of her school board, she got rid of the rule.

That point, about learning, came up when Burmeister fought the leggings battle, too. “We need to have dress code rules that actually have relevance,” he says. “We didn’t see an inability to focus because we said students could now wear leggings.”

Involve The Students

“One of the things I advocate for the most is respecting student voice and getting students involved in decision-making,” says Allison of the NASSP. “I want to encourage all principals to have an active dialogue with their student body.”

What does that “active dialogue” look like?

For Marilyn Boerke it involved the leggings issue, in reverse.

She’s the principal of Liberty Middle School in Camas, Wash. Her students were upset they couldn’t wear ripped jeans. So she invited some students to her office and they reached a compromise: If the students wore leggings underneath, they could wear jeans with as many rips as they wanted.

The solution may seem obvious or simplistic, she says, but the students were excited that their voices had been heard.